keywords: rv32, rv64

  • ISA type: RISC
  • Endianness: little, big


  • riscv32 => XLEN=32
  • riscv64 => XLEN=64

General purpose registers

[XLEN-1:0]     abi name     desc
x0             zero         zero register
x1             ra           return addr
x2             sp           stack ptr
x3             gp           global ptr
x4             tp           thread ptr
x5-x7          t0-t2        temp regs
x8-x9          s0-s1        saved regs
x10-x17        a0-a7        arg regs
x18-x27        s2-s11       saved regs
x28-x31        t3-t6        temp regs

ASM skeleton

Small assembler skeleton, ready to use with following properties:

  • use raw Linux syscalls (man 2 syscall for ABI)
  • no C runtime (crt)
  • gnu assembler gas
// file: greet.S

#include <asm/unistd.h>     // syscall NRs

    .section .text, "ax", @progbits
    .balign 4               // align code on 4byte boundary
    .global _start
    li a0, 2                // fd
    la a1, greeting         // buf
    ld a2, (greeting_len)   // &len
    li a7, __NR_write       // write(2) syscall

    li a0, 42               // exit code
    li a7, __NR_exit        // exit(2) syscall

    .balign 8               // align data on 8byte boundary
    .section .rodata, "a", @progbits
    .asciz "Hi ASM-World!\n"
    .int .-greeting

man gcc: file.S assembler code that must be preprocessed.

To cross-compile and run:

> riscv64-linux-gnu-gcc -o greet greet.S -nostartfiles -nostdlib                \
    -Wl,--dynamic-linker=/usr/riscv64-linux-gnu/lib/ld-linux-riscv64-lp64d.so.1 \
  && qemu-riscv64 ./greet
Hi ASM-World!

Cross-compiling on Ubuntu 20.04 (x86_64), paths might differ on other distributions. Explicitly specifying the dynamic linker should not be required when compiling natively on riscv.

Select dynamic linker according to abi used during compile & link.